Adverse outcome: A pregnancy that does not resultin a live birth including miscarriage,induced terminations, and stillbirths.
ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology): Any procedurewhere eggs are surgically removed from a woman’s ovaries andcombined with sperm to assist a woman in getting pregnant. ART proceduresinclude in vitro fertilization (IVF), gameteintrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygoteintrafallopian transfer (ZIFT).
ART cycle: The process includes 1) an ART procedure,2) ovarian stimulation, or 3) frozen embryos thawed for transfer intoa woman. This process begins when a woman starts fertility medicationsor has her ovaries monitored for follicle production.
Canceled cycle: An ART cycle in which ovarian stimulationwas carried out but was stopped before eggs were retrieved, or inthe case of frozen embryo cycles, before embryos were transferred.The reasons a cycle may be have been cancelled include: undevelopedeggs, patient became ill, or the patient chose to stop treatment.
Combination cycle: An ART cycle which uses morethan one ART procedure. Combination cycles usually combine IVF witheither GIFT or ZIFT.
Concentration of motile sperm: A measurement of the spermthat can readily swim to fertilize the egg. According to the World HealthOrganization (WHO), there should be a minimum of 10 million motile spermper milliliter of semen.
Cryopreservation: The process of freezing extraembryos from a couple’s ART cycle for potential future use.
Diminished ovarian reserve: A diagnosed conditionwhich means the ability of the ovary to produce eggs is reduced. Thereasons may either be congenital, medical, surgical causes or advancedmaternal age (older than 40).
Donor egg cycle: An embryo is formed from the eggof one woman (the donor) and then transferred to another woman whois unable to use her own eggs (the recipient). All parental rightsare relinquished by the donor.
Donor embryo: An embryo that is donated by a couplewho previously underwent ART treatment and had extra embryos available.All parental rights are relinquished by the donor couple.
Ectopic pregnancy:A pregnancy in which the fertilized egg implants in a locationoutside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, the ovary, orthe abdominal cavity.
Egg: A female reproductive cell, also called anoocyte or ovum.
Egg retrieval (also called oocyte retrieval): Aprocedure to collect the eggs contained in the ovarian follicles.
Egg transfer (also called oocyte transfer): Theprocedure of transferring retrieved eggs into a woman’s fallopiantubes through laparoscopy, used only in GIFT.
Embryo: An egg that has been fertilized by a spermand undergone one or more divisions.
Embryo transfer: Theprocedure of placing an embryo into a woman’s uterus throughthe cervix after in vitro fertilization (IVF). During the processof zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), the embryos are placed ina woman’s fallopian tube.
Endometriosis:A medical condition that involves the presence of tissuesimilar to the uterine lining in abnormal locations. This conditioncan affect both fertilization of the egg and embryo implantation.
Fertilization: The penetration of the egg by thesperm and the resulting combining of genetic material that developsinto an embryo.
Fetus: The unborn offspring from the eighth weekafter conception to the moment of birth.
Follicle: A structure in the ovaries that containsa developing egg.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH): A hormone producedby the pituitary gland that helps an egg mature and be released. High levelsof FSH indicate ovarian reserve is low and chances of conception are poor.
Fresh eggs, sperm, or embryos: Eggs, sperm, orembryos that have not been frozen. However, fresh embryos may havebeen conceived using either fresh or frozen sperm.
Frozen embryo cycle: An ART cycle in which frozen(cryopreserved) embryos are thawed and transferred to the woman.
Gamete: A reproductive cell, either a sperm oran egg.
GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer):An ART procedure that involves removing eggs from the woman’sovary, combining them with sperm, and using a laparoscope to placethe unfertilized eggs and sperm into the woman’s fallopian tubethrough small incisions in her abdomen.
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Gestational carrier (also called a gestational surrogate):A woman who carries an embryo that was formed from the eggof another woman. The gestational carrier usually has a contractualobligation to return the infant to its intended parents.
Gestational sac: A fluid-filled structure thatdevelops within the uterus early in pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy,a gestational sac contains a developing fetus.
Home fertility screening: Over-the-counter fertilitytesting kits that allow for screening for both men and women.
ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection):A procedure in which a single sperm is injected directlyinto an egg; this procedure is most commonly used to overcome maleinfertility problems.
Induced abortion: A surgical or other medical procedureused to end a pregnancy.
IUI (intrauterine insemination): A medical procedurethat involves placing sperm into a woman’s uterus to facilitatefertilization. IUI is not considered an ART procedure because it doesnot involve the manipulation of eggs.
IVF (in vitro fertilization):An ART procedure that involves removing eggs from a woman’sovaries and fertilizing them outside her body. The resulting embryosare then transferred into the woman’s uterus through the cervix.
Laparoscopy: A surgical procedure in which a fiberoptic instrument (a laparoscope) is inserted through a small incisionin the abdomen to view the inside of the pelvis.
Live birth: The delivery of one or more babieswith any signs of life.
Male factor: Any cause of infertility due to lowsperm count or problems with sperm function that make it difficultfor a sperm to fertilize an egg under normal conditions.
Miscarriage(also called spontaneous abortion): A pregnancy ending inthe spontaneous loss of the embryo or fetus before 20 weeks of gestation.
Multi fetal pregnancy reduction: This procedure is alsoknown as selective reduction. A procedure used to decrease the number offetuses a woman carries and improve the chances that the remaining fetuseswill develop into healthy infants. Multi fetal reductions that occur naturallyare referred to as spontaneous reductions.
Multiple factors, female only: This diagnosticcategory means that more than one female infertility cause was diagnosed.
Multiple factors, female and male: A diagnostic categoryused when one or more female/male infertility causes are diagnosed together.
Multiple-infant birth: A pregnancy that resultsin the birth of more than one infant.
Multiple-fetus pregnancy: A pregnancy with twoor more fetuses, determined by the number of fetal hearts observedon an ultrasound performed early in pregnancy.
Oocyte: The female reproductive cell, also calledan egg.
Other causes of infertility: These include immunologicalproblems, chromosomal abnormalities, cancer, chemotherapy, and seriousillnesses.
Ovarian monitoring: The use of ultrasound and/orblood or urine tests to monitor follicle development and hormone production.
Ovarian reserve: Refers to a woman’s fertility potentialin the absence of problems in her reproductive tract (fallopian tubes, uterusor vagina).
Ovarian stimulation: The use of medications tostimulate the ovaries to develop follicles and eggs.
Ovulatory dysfunction: A diagnostic category used whena woman’s ovaries are not producing eggs normally. It includes polycysticovary syndrome (PCOS)and multiple ovarian cysts.
Pregnancy (clinical): A pregnancy documented byultrasound that shows a gestational sac in the uterus. For ART datacollection purposes, pregnancy is defined as a clinical pregnancyrather than a chemical pregnancy (i.e., a positive pregnancy test).
PregnancySymptoms: A group of physical changes that occur in awoman’s body related to pregnancy and the increased levels of thehCG hormone.
Sperm: The male reproductive cell.
Sperm motility: The sperm’s ability to readily swim forward tofertilize the egg. Also referred to as sperm mobility.
Stillbirth: Fetal death that occurs after 20 weeksgestation.
Stimulated cycle: An ART cycle in which a womanreceives oral or injected fertility drugs to stimulate her ovariesto produce more follicles.
Thawed embryo cycle: Same as frozen embryo cycle.
Tubal factor: A diagnostic category used when thewoman’s fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged, making it difficultfor the egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to travel to the uterus.
Ultrasound:A technique used in ART for visualizing the follicles in the ovaries,the gestational sac, or the fetus.
Unexplained cause of infertility: A diagnosticcategory used when no cause of infertility is found in either thewoman or the man.
Unstimulated cycle: An ART cycle in which the womandoes not receive drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles.Instead, follicles develop naturally.
Uterine factor: A structural or functional disorderof the uterus that results in reduced fertility.
ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian transfer):An ART procedure in which eggs are collected from a woman’sovary and fertilized outside her body. A laparoscope is then usedto place the resulting zygote (fertilized egg) into the woman’sfallopian tube through a small incision in her abdomen.